Know Your Leather

Different types of leather
Prior to understanding leather, let us understand animal skin. The inside of the animal skin covers flesh and the outside is exposed to the environment. The outer surface of animal skin besides hair also has grains – densely arranged dead cells that form a specific pattern due to tightly-packed sturdy fibres mostly of collagen. The tough grains on the outer surface offer protection against foreign agents and environmental conditions. The inner layer is known as dermis or corium – which is less densely pack on the inner side (collagen fibres are flexible and thinner) compared to the outer side (collagen fibres are tight and thicker). The corium becomes thicker and tighter as it approaches close to the grain. Collagen fibres in this layer offer strength and elasticity. As an animal ages, the corium becomes thicker, denser and tougher – owing to this reason calfskin is softer, smoother and thinner than the skin of older animals. In a nutshell, grain and corium are the two layers of animal skin or animal hide.
While buying leather products, as a consumer, you should know what you are buying and is it worth paying for the product you want to buy. The things to remember while buying leather include knowing proper terminology and types of leather and the ability to spot differences among different types of leather.
Grain leather
Grain leather is of two types: Top grain leather and full grain leather.
Top Grain Leather: This type of leather is corrected in some or the other way. It is called as top grain leather.
Full Grain Leather: In this type of leather, the entire grain is kept completely intact with all the blemishes, scars, stretch marks and bands. In spite of all such blemishes and marks, this type of leather is in high-demand and even expensive. Owing to its longevity and durability, it is the most sought-after leather across the globe.
The grain leather is further classified into three types: aniline, semi-aniline and protected.
Aniline leather: To obtain this type of leather, animal hide (skin) is processed with soluble dyes. This type of processing retains the texture and natural marking of the leather without requiring surface coating or pigments. Aniline leather is the most natural looking leather. However, it is prone to staining, fading and scratching.
Semi-aniline leather: To obtain this type of leather, animal hide (skin) is treated with pigments to conceal blemishes and obtain uniform coating. This type of leather stays more protected.
Protected leather: This type of grain leather is protected with a non-leather coating, which is sprayed as a protectant.
Split leather: This type of leather is known to us by different names. The layer of skin that is split off from the corium and grain junction - which is less densely pack on the inner side (collagen fibers are flexible and thinner) compared to the outer side (collagen fibers are tight and thicker) is known as split leather. This is the most confusing type of leather for a layperson.  It is most often referred to as genuine leather. However, there is no consistency in the usage of this term. Genuine leather is mostly used to mean real leather to differentiate it from the manmade faux leather. Though split leather is the appropriate term, there are several terms used to refer this type of leather, such as coated leather, embossed leather, Suede leather, corrected leather, painted leather and Napa leather.
Split leather is processed into a finished split to make it durable and strong. To ensure this, the leather is sliced down a bit thinner and is coated with a polymer – which looks like a grain leather.
Suede leather: The split leather is processed further and textured to get a napped finish (soft finish). Its softness and pliability make it useful for some applications.
Suede leather looks similar to nubuck leather as it has smooth nap finish – but nubuck leather is a much stronger and durable leather. The texture of it looks similar to Suede leather.
Bonded leather: It is the lowest grade of leather; which means, not a real leather. It is rather a reconstituted leather – made by assembling bits and scraps of shredded leather with a filler and then backing them with an embossed polyurethane coating. It is cheap and not so durable as it disintegrates easily. The leather is also referred to as blended or reconstituted leather. It is used in low-grade furniture lining, sofa sets and other accessories.
Leather Tanning
Leather should not be confused with a raw skin of animal or animal hide. It is rather a processed material formed after tanning animal hide (cattle, goat, buffalo, cow) in tanneries. There are several parameters and factors that define the type of leather produced including – the source of raw material (animal hide), the type of tanning, processing of tanning and the final finishing process.  Tanning process is centuries old. It has been evolving over the years and now the complete process has become automated by using machines.
What is leather tanning?
Leather is not the raw skin of animal as it is considered by many people. It is rather a processed material obtained after tanning animal skin in tanneries. The source of raw material, the type of tanning and the finishing process – all define the quality and classification of leather.
The process by which raw animal hide or skin is converted into leather to turn it into a durable and stable material to prevent decomposition is known as tanning. The agents that are used in tanning include salts, plants’ products like tannin, animal and fish oils and salts of chromium. Thus animal-based, plant-based and mineral products can be used for tanning. Tanned leather is used for a variety of leather products such as handbags, purses, wallets, shoes, gloves, upholstery, briefcases and jackets.
Types of leather tanning
The initial stages of tanning involve submerging animal skin or hide in water to soften and clean it and then curing it with salt. This process by reducing water & moisture content discourages bacterial growth and protects the hide from deterioration. Thus, the hide can be preserved for longer time.
After initial processing, the cured hide is further soaked in water to remove excess salt. Next, the hide is treated with milk of lime (liming process), which removes unwanted materials, keratins and other proteins from the hide. Furthermore, the hide is subjected to additional treatments to ensure optimal PH of the collagen for the completion of tanning process.
Different types of tanning processes that are employed to produce several types of leather include the following:
Vegetable tanning: In this type of tanning process, plant-based materials such as bark, roots, leaves and fruits can be used to make vegetable tannins that help in the production of naturally smooth, flexible and supple leather. Acacia, mangrove, chestnut and oak tree barks are used in vegetable tanning process.
Aldehyde Tanning: Leather processed by aldehyde tanning process is chrome-free. It is basically used in products that require sensitive type of tanning approach as it may be used by infants and children. Leather tanned by this type of tanning process looks more natural and has creamy colour – owing to which it is often referred to as wet white leather.
Chrome tanning: This type of tanning process involves treating leather with chromium sulphate to make raw hide into leather. The hide tanned and made into leather by this process appear quite distinct with blue colour – owing to which, leather produced by this method is known as wet blue leather. Chrome tanning takes less time than vegetable tanning and produces leather which is soft, smooth, flexible and supple and it is reasonably good for ladies’ handbags, purses, bags, jackets and clothes.
According to the required and desired features of the final leather and its products, several types of tanning methods may be employed including the usage of aluminium salts and formaldehyde.
Leather Care
A leather bag is a precious and favourable possession to have for almost everyone. The time-consuming process of leather tanning, the careful thoughts given to details in craftsmanship for producing premium quality leather bags have made Goose leather products very special and precious. One should keep in mind the fact that our leather products are not made from metal, ceramic or any synthetic material. These are organic artifacts – which may deteriorate and fade if proper care is not taken to preserve them. Good quality leather bags can last for years if proper care is taken. Proper care prevents the leather from drying out and cracking and protects it from excessive moisture that can cause growth of mold.  So, a good quality leather bag deserves better treatment with care.
  • Store your leather bag in its original bag with stuffing to maintain the shape.
  • Keep a packet of silica gel inside the bag so that it will not be dumped.
  • Air once in every two weeks to prevent the growth of mold.
Time-tested quality leather lasts longer because it is made durable by improving its longevity with some very special manufacturing techniques and processes. You should preserve it with care to ensure that it will last lifetime. But, preservation is not confined only to taking care, but knowing and implementing what is necessary to ensure its durability.
Clean, condition and protect your leather
You can maintain softness and suppleness of leather by ensuring a proper cleaning regimen. When you take care of your leather product, you can maintain it for longer. The conditioning of leather also depends on the geographical location in which you are living. If it is a hot and humid climate zone, then your leather may need conditioning especially when it starts to fade, look dull, seemingly feeble and less svelte. As your skin needs conditioning to look fresh, shiny and oily, so is your leather whenever it goes dry.
Leather maintenance tips
Never use water alone to swipe or clean or wet and soak leather – rather use a cotton cloth soaked in water to clean it – and then remove wetness by using another clean and dry cloth.
When leather gets wet, then try to soak water by using a thick cotton cloth ensuring that no more water remains – dry the leather afterwards.
Do not use any unrecognized chemical, agent or alcohol or any other liquid to clean your leather goods.
Avoid exposing leather to direct sunlight as it tends to dry and fade the leather. Sunlight dries out leather making it brittle – brittleness cracks and deteriorate your leather.
Avoid storing leather in humid conditions or too hot or too cold conditions – always ensure dry environment for storing leather.
Don’t keep cosmetics open inside leather bags – ensure that they are properly covered prior to being put inside.
Don’t touch leather with greasy and oily hands as it is susceptible to absorb grease and oils.
Ensure that nail polish remover and turpentine should never come in contact with leather.
Don’t keep the stuff that might leak and spill inside leather bags – such as inks, nail polish, etc.
Don’t wrap leather in a plastic or any foil this will deprive aeration and causes leather deterioration.
Don’t stretch out your leather and worn it out. It will lose its originality this way.
Don’t keep leather unattended for several months or years together. It is better to use it periodically and dress it intermittently.
Never allow dirt and dirt particles to gather on leather – or else they may cause severe abrasion deep from inside – which will cause irreparable damage.
To clean dirt, use soft bristles brush. This will help in getting rid of dirt; use a soft cotton cloth to remove the remaining dirt. Next, use a damp cloth to clean the leather and then dry it off.
If you wet your leather in rain, then don’t try to dry it instantly using a drier or fire or any other means – rather let the leather dry at room temperature allowing it to settle a bit. 
Be careful when you visit to a hairdressing saloon with your bag on because hair sprays, hair care products and colouring agents can damage your leather. Therefore, keep your bag in a safe cabinet.
When you are not using leather bag, then you must take care of it while storing as well. To ensure this properly, store your bag in a natural-fabric case. If your bag has detachable metal chain, clamps or clips, then remove those and put them in a clean tissue paper and store separately. Stuff your unused bag with bubble wrap to restore and hold its shape. If you want to clean your bag prior to storing it, then allow it to completely air dry before storage.
Coconut oil works wonders
Coconut oil helps in rejuvenating your leather and preventing it from fading. Rub some coconut oil onto leather by moving your hand in circular motions and let the oil penetrate for at least 10 minutes – and then remove excess oil with a new clean cotton cloth.
Use vinegar and olive oil to condition your leather
Mix two parts of vinegar with one-part olive oil and keep this mixture in a spray bottle. If you want this mixture to smell better, add a few drops of fragrance-based natural essential oils to this mixture. Spray on your leather bag or purse and massage the entire surface with a clean cotton cloth in circular motions. Use a dry cloth to remove excess oil from the leather.